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Guide Amazing but True - Egypt

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Some of them even had fractured bones caused by heavy weights crushing them, but splints and skilful medical attention had enabled the bones to grow together again. In other words, there is plenty of evidence to prove that the pyramids were built by real people and not by men from Mars or astronauts from a lost civilization. The greatest builder of pyramids ever known was Seneferu, the first king of the fourth dynasty. About 40 km 25 miles south of Saqqara, at Meidum, he built the first pyramid with the true pyramid shape.


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Unfortunately, the outer stones have since collapsed, leaving only a step-pyramid core. Seneferu built another pyramid closer to Saqqara, at Dahshur. It is called the Bent Pyramid because the lower half rises at an angle of 54 degrees, much steeper than the upper half, which is only 43 degrees.

This clear evidence of experimentation and failure is what we would expect from intelligent but flawed humans. It shows how absurd is the idea that super aliens built them. Not satisfied with these huge monuments, Seneferu then built the Red Pyramid, also at Dahshur. This whole pyramid was at the lower angle of 43 degrees.

Perhaps this was his final attempt to have a pyramid which would not collapse on him after he was buried! Altogether it contains some three million huge blocks of stone, some of which weigh about 15 tons. They weigh up to 30 tons each, but are so perfectly squared that it is not possible to fit a postcard between them. How they attained such precision is a source of great admiration see box How were the stones set in place?

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It was either never finished or local stone robbers have removed most of the upper stones. The next two kings of the dynasty, Khafre Gk. Cephren and Menkaure Gk. Mycerinus , built their pyramids back on the Giza plateau. Egyptian princess Sobekneferu. Is this the face of the woman who drew Moses out of the water because she had no child of her own? Some biblical scholars believe so. This statue of King Zoser seems harsh because thieves have stolen the originally inlaid eyes and disfigured the face.

Together with his architect Imhotep, he was responsible for the first pyramid.

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The outside face of some of these granite blocks was not completed, so archaeologists can see that the outside blocks were not cut exactly before being fitted in place. Rather, they were put in place and then masons started at the top and worked downwards, facing the outside blocks as they went. The pyramids of the fifth and sixth dynasties were shoddy affairs, made of rubble but faced with nice white stones. Most of these stones have been stolen, leaving untidy heaps of debris.

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Unas, the last king of the fifth dynasty, introduced one new feature in this period. He had vertical lines of hieroglyphic texts inscribed in his tomb chambers. Previous pyramids had no original texts in them.


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Dynasties seven to ten, the First Intermediate Period, has traditionally been considered a time of poverty and confusion. However, some scholars 1 suggest that these dynasties did not exist, at least not as independent dynasties—another reason why the traditionally held chronology of Egypt needs shortening. The next dynasties comprise the so-called Middle Kingdom, a period of power and affluence. With the shortened chronology of Egypt advocated by some scholars, 2 Joseph and then Jacob and his family may well have come to Egypt during the 12 th dynasty, and Moses may have been born before the dynasty ended.

Most of the pyramids built in this dynasty were made of millions of large, sun-dried mud bricks. Then the structure was faced with smooth stones to give the appearance of a true stone pyramid.

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However, the stones have long since been stolen, leaving only a huge pile of mud bricks. The mud-brick pyramid of Amenemhet III. Mud brick mixed with straw—perhaps like those the Israelites made Exodus ; — However, by the shortened chronology the dates of the early dynasties would be reduced and the Israelites would have been in Egypt during the 12 th dynasty. Also, that would be consistent with the type of pyramids evident in that period, i. Let them go and gather straw for themselves. There is also evidence that there were Asiatic people from Syria or Palestine slaves in Egypt during this dynasty.

Sir Flinders Petrie and Rosalie David could not understand the reason for their presence in Egypt because they clung to the traditional dates for the 12 th dynasty of Egypt. These are from about to BC, whereas the biblical dates for the Israelite presence in Egypt would be from about to BC 1 Kings Significantly, these slaves suddenly disappeared, and traditional archaeologists do not know why. All these problems disappear when we start with the reliable history and chronology of the Bible. People often associate Egypt with mummies.

The dryness of the arid climate preserved bodies buried in shallow sandy pits, as in the image below. Egyptians intentionally mummified their dead early in their history.

Giza Pyramids

The process was an expensive one and usually only rulers or nobility could afford it. The steps involved took about 70 days and required the removal of all moisture from the body so that the dried form would not easily decay. Later, after all the organs were removed, the body was subjected to various treatments and wrapped in linen bandages up to hundreds of metres long. Like many pagan societies, the ancient Egyptians did not follow the true Creator God of the Bible. They believed that preserving their bodies as life-like as possible would somehow grant them eternal life.

This Pharaoh could well have been the foster father of Moses. His daughter, Sobekneferu, was the last ruler of this dynasty, and she had no son to succeed her. This was not because she had no bathroom at the royal palace. Instead, she would most likely have been there praying to the Nile fertility god, Hapi, for a baby. When the basket containing the baby Moses came to her attention she may well have considered it an answer to her prayer. But when Moses was 40 years of age, he showed his sympathy for the Israelite slaves by killing one of their oppressors.

Ready to learn 7 facts you may not know about the ancient Egyptian pyramids?

When this came to the attention of Pharaoh, Moses had to flee to the distant land of Midian. So when Sobekneferu died, the dynasty came to an end. Retired Boston lawyer Theodore M. Davis funds Carter's excavation of Queen Hatshepsut 's tomb but it is found to be empty and Carter deprived of further funding is reduced to selling his paintings to tourists on the street. In Lord Carnarvon arrives in Luxor to convalesce after a road accident and is shown an artifact bearing the cartouche of the mysterious Tutankhamun discovered by Davis on his new dig.

Tutankhamun succeeded his heretical father as pharaoh at the age of 8 and was named in honour of Amun to symbolise his mission to restore the old gods and save the empire from turmoil.

An inspired Carnarvon employs Carter but they are denied access to the Valley of the Kings for which only Davis has a permit. Amidst the flurry of construction that marked the beginning of Tutankhamun's reign the most important to the boy Pharaoh would have been that of his tomb. An ailing Davis announces his discovery of this, the final Pharaoh's tomb, prior to his retirement.

Carter doubts the find and convinces Carnarvon to take up the concession. The methodical and meticulous excavation commences in but is quickly interrupted by World War I. The Carnarvons return to Egypt at the end of the war and Carter recommences his excavation but with a continued lack of results leading to doubts that any undiscovered tombs are left in the valley the funding is finally cut in Tutankhamun's tomb was well concealed to ensure his undisturbed afterlife.

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Carter convinces Carnarvon to fund one last season during which the tomb is finally unearthed. When the tomb is opened in the presence of Carnarvon and his daughter it is revealed to be the only unplundered pharaoh's tomb in the valley. In Carter goes to the Egyptian Antiquities Service in Cairo to announce his discovery but disagrees with Director Pierre Lacau over the clearance and cataloguing of the contents. The discovery revealed a dark time in the history of Egypt and the death of its boy king.

Carter assembles an international team of experts to commence the work under the unwelcome scrutiny of Lacau's inspector and the western press. Canarvon's cavalier attitude to the finds he considers his property starts to infuriate both Carter and Lacau. As the finds are slowly catalogued and removed Carter becomes close to Canarvon's daughter Evelyn but his strictness begins to alienate his team. Tutankhamun was married to his own sister but the union failed to produce an heir to secure the future of the kingdom.

Stories of the curse begin to circulate as Carter breaks through into the burial chamber to reveal an intact tomb. As Lacau threatens to take over the excavation and several of the experts quit Canarvon questions Carter over his leadership and his relationship with Evelyn. When he came of age Tutankhamun took over control of the kingdom from his military advisor Ay only to die from unknown causes shortly thereafter. Carter rushes to Canarvon's death-bed where the two make-up.

Upon Tutankhamun's death Ay seized the throne and married the widowed queen. Carter, disappointed by Evelyn's engagement to another man, returns to continue his work. Tutankhuman's death came before the royal tomb could be completed so he was hastily buried in the tomb Ay had prepared for himself. Lacau takes over the running of the tomb in when Carter and his team stop work to protest continued Egyptian interference.