Dulles and his fellow Synarchists did not achieve their full scheme, but they did establish NATO as an occupation authority for Europe, which prepared for war against the Soviet Union. Lord Bertrand Russell's early call for pre-emptive nuclear warfare against the Soviet Union is typical. In the name of "fighting communism," Europe would be kept under AngloAllen Dulles American domination through NATO, and any and all means would be authorized toward that goal. When the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO was established in , a secret clause in its treaty specified that each nation that wished to join must first establish a "national security authority" to fight communism, including through the deployment of clandestine citizen cadres.
This demand grew out of a secret committee set up by the British and the U. Truman's National Security Council issued directives authorizing the Armed Forces to use military force against Communist Parties, which commanded strong popular support in several European countries as a result of the war, even if those parties gained participation in government through elections. According to Italian Gen.
Italian Gen. Gerardo Serravalle testified that the members of the CPC were the officers responsible for the stay-behind apparatus in the various European countries, and that "At the stay-behind meetings representatives of the CIA were always present," as well as "members of the U. Forces Europe Command. The mids U. Congressional investigative committee under Sen. Frank Church, which examined illicit actions by U. The early plans were focussed on the Soviet Union, as the Church report noted: "Until OPC's paramilitary activities also referred to as preventive action were limited to plans and preparations for stay-behind nets in the event of future war.
A Joint Chiefs of Staff directive of May 14, set up "Operation Demagnetize," in which the CIA and the military secret services were instructed to reduce the "magnetic attraction" of the large Communist Parties of Italy and France through all means, including "political, paramilitary and psychological operations. This objective has to be reached by the employment of all means.
It emphasized that military and other secret service leaders in each country should be recruited as U.
The recruitment of senior members of the secret service of the host country as long time agents is thus especially important. This process began already in , when the Anglo-American synarchists re-constructed Italy's military secret service and its military police, the Carabinieri. Some of the key individuals whom they installed or sponsored later turned up as members of P2, from where they oversaw the terrorism and assassinations of the late s and s, as well as the cover-ups.
Like Borghese, some of these leaders had been recruited by Angleton himself. Most often such situations come about when the revolutionaries temporarily renounce the use of force and thus hope to gain an advantage, as the leaders of the host country wrongly consider the situation to be secure.
The manual stressed, "These special operations must remain strictly secret. Only those persons who are acting against the revolutionary uprising shall know of the involvement of the U. Army in the internal affairs of an allied country. The fact, that the involvement of forces of the U. As in virtually everything to do with imperial strategies, the relevant U.
Gladio specialist Daniele Ganser of the Center for Security Studies at Zurich Technical University observed, "Many within the stay-behind community regarded the British to be the best in the field of secret warfare, more experienced than the military officers of the U.
The British set up a base for training stay-behind units at Ft. Monckton outside Portsmouth, England, and another in Sardinia. One of the stay-behind operatives trained at Ft. Monckton recalled, "We were made to do exercises, going out in the dead of night and pretending to blow up trains in the railway stations without the stationmaster or the porters seeing you. We crept about and pretended to lay charges on the right part of the railway engine with a view to blowing it up. Lyndon LaRouche first emphasized within hours of the Madrid train bombings of March 11, which killed and wounded thousands more, that they were not the work of "Islamic terrorists," but followed the pattern of the Bologna bombing.
Vincenzo Vinciguerra, an Italian neo-fascist terrorist who was jailed for life and who had been bitter about the secret service's "manipulation" of neo-fascist groups ever since , explained how Gladio and any sister organizations worked: "You had to attack civilians, the people, women, children, innocent people, unknown people far removed from any political game. The reason was quite simple.
They were supposed to force these people, the Italian public, to turn to the State to ask for greater security. This is the political logic that lies behind all the massacres and the bombings which remain unpunished, because the State cannot convict itself or declare itself responsible for what happened.
It reported in April , "Britain's role in setting up stay-behinds throughout Europe was absolutely fundamental. More crucial than the stay-behinds, were the secretive bodies which coordinated them, such as P2. Here, too, the British led the way. Already in , the British set up a proto-P2 masonic lodge composed of House of Savoy monarchists, aristocrats, and Mussolini loyalists. A Jan. OSS official James Jesus Angleton saved Borghese in , and then set up the clandestine structure in the Italian military and secret services, which produced the Italian section of Gladio.
Angleton was a devout Anglophile and a pro-fascist, who had spent much of his boyhood in Italy, where his father, James Hugh Angleton, owned the Italian subsidiary of National Cash Register. The outspokenly pro-Hitler, pro-Mussolini senior Angleton also headed the U. Chamber of Commerce in Italy, and had extensive contacts with Mussolini's intelligence services. Some accounts report that he was a business partner of Allen Dulles.
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Both he and his son were to work for the special counterespionage unit of OSS, X-2, which had been set up at the demand of the British. Though it was nominally an American organization, the headquarters of X-2 for all of Europe, and even most of the globe, was London. X-2 was trained and de facto run throughout the war by the British, as its operatives were dispatched across Europe. From late through the first half of , Lt.
James Hugh Angleton was X-2's liaison to Marshal Pietro Badoglio and other leaders of the Italian army, and to the army's intelligence service, building upon his excellent contacts in pre-war Italy. The junior Angleton landed in Italy as an X-2 operative in October The U.flirinahuzge.cf
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This, naturally, set the pattern for decades to come. By age 28, he was chief of all secret activity, intelligence as well as counterintelligence, in Italy for the Strategic Services Unit, the short-lived successor to OSS, and predecessor to the operational section of the CIA, which was established in Essential to Angleton's activities, to the establishment of the first stay-behind units in Italy, and to the organization of the Vatican-linked "rat-lines" which smuggled fascists out of Europe at war's end, was the Sovereign Military Order of Malta SMOM.
The Rome-based SMOM was a nominally Catholic organization with membership drawn from the highest ranks of the European oligarchy, in particular Italy's black nobility. A member of the "Black Prince's" family, S. As Angleton rose in U. Under NSC directives issued in and , the CIA helped the Italian police set up secret units of counterinsurgency specialists, largely drawn from veterans of Mussolini's secret police.
A new military intelligence agency, SIFAR, was organized under the direction of a covert American intelligence operative, Carmel Offie, nicknamed "the godfather. On Dec. Indeed, some people in U.
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Greene and Massignani observe that, "Interestingly enough, the core of the future Gladio stay-behind organization started with the Osoppo partisans. In , Borghese led some MSI volunteers, among others, to launch an uprising in the north Adriatic city of Trieste, a city which was claimed by both Italy and Yugoslavia. The neo-fascists acted on behalf of the "Committee for the Defense of Italians of Trieste and Istria," whose weapons were delivered by the Italian secret services.
The following year, Trieste was returned to Italy. He was later to become one of the leaders of the "Tricolor Committee for the Italianity of the Alto Adige. Though Italian territory, the area was German-speaking, and a fruitful area for promoting ethnic conflict. According to documents discovered in Italy in , Gladio's forces there were divided into 40 main groups, 10 specialized in sabotage, 6 each in espionage, propaganda, evasion and escape tactics, and 12 in guerrilla activities.
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A special Gladio training camp was set up on Sardinia, off Italy's western coast, run by the Americans and the British. That same year, , U. He began purging officers deemed not sufficiently "anti-communist," in either his eyes or or those of U. CIA Rome station chief William Harvey, meanwhile, was recruiting "action teams" to throw bombs and attack leftists. These teams launched an attack on a peaceful demonstration in Rome in , leaving people injured and heavy damage to part of the city.
The action was later linked to Gladio, in testimony by a general of the secret service.