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In these contexts, social costs may be incurred as a result of people investing in management activities that are not sufficiently compensated due to the limited benefits generated or distributed to communities. A third approach consists of 'targeted compensation' efforts that seek to address conflicts between specific conservation objectives and particular aspects of human use. Examples include direct compensation to forgo specific types of hunting, harvesting, or cultivation activities such as grazing or underplanting in forests that affect biodiversity or payments for attacks on livestock by predator species of high conservation value.

For example, in Namibia, the government provides compensation to community conservancy members for predations on livestock by wildlife WWF b. Key elements of promising efforts to establish these kinds of targeted compensation are that both the specific conservation objective and the social impact are clearly defined, the form and extent of compensation is negotiated and agreed, and accountability for compensation is clear.

While relevant for all actors involved in conservation work, the following points particularly highlight the contributions that conservation organizations can make to promote more effective approaches. One need is for more in-depth analysis, in conservation planning and monitoring, of how human activities affect specific aspects of biodiversity positively and negatively and how specific proposed conservation interventions are likely to affect local people positively and negatively.

To date, social research in the context of conservation planning has focused overwhelmingly on analyzing human impacts on biodiversity, especially those seen as posing 'threats'. A related gap is consistent integration of analysis to understand how conservation interventions may impact local people, comparable to social impact assessment in the context of development interventions Geisler ; GEF Social impact analysis provides a basis for conservationists and potentially affected people to define and develop appropriate responses-such as alternative strategies or compensation measures-to ensure against negative impacts or promote positive ones Some frameworks for social impact assessment relevant to conservation include the Akwe Kon guidelines CBD Secretariat , the World Bank's Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction model Cernea , and Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis DFID ; Igoe Impact analysis should be part of and, in turn, can strengthen and inform collaborative planning and decision-making processes with indigenous peoples and local communities.

Monitoring of social impacts also needs to be integrated into emerging systems for more rigorous measurement of conservation outcomes. At the site level, monitoring of social impacts provides a basis for changing course, where problems arise, as well as for demonstrating-through better documentation of positive outcomes-the relevance of conservation to the social agendas of broader constituencies.

A second way conservation organizations can contribute is through clear policies and positions regarding the social impacts of conservation. Institutional policies reflect recognition that conservation organizations share responsibilities with governments and others for ensuring that social costs and benefits are equitably addressed in the activities they support.

Relevant standards have been developed through a growing set of international instruments and in operational guidelines of development agencies Siegele et al.

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Principles and standards related to indigenous peoples have been a focus of attention in conservation policy-for example, the WWF Statement of Principles on Indigenous Peoples and Conservation, first developed in and updated in WWF a -reflecting international legal frameworks specific to the rights of indigenous peoples. In addition, relevant policy and guidance is needed to address social impact issues as they relate to nonindigenous communities.

Institutional social policies establish standards and provide guidance to managers in implementing social safeguards and promoting positive social benefits from conservation. In addition, policy communicates institutional values and commitments to others. Thus, policy supports clear statements to potential partners regarding the terms on which the organization can engage in a partnership or activity, and the kinds of activities it cannot support.

It also establishes a basis for collaboration with others who share concerns for socially equitable approaches to conservation and development. A third critical future direction for conservation organizations is to continue building upon and expanding collaborative approaches with indigenous peoples and local communities. This direction is supported and necessitated by the growing recognition of indigenous and local communities as rights holders in many remaining areas of high biodiversity, shifts in conservation thinking and practice to broader landscape scales, and lessons learned regarding the need for local constituencies for conservation.

Collaborative approaches are especially important because conservation activities can often take place in contexts where basic social protections-such as protection of human and civil rights, channels to participate meaningfully in decision making, and rights to land and resources-are not secured.

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In these contexts, special efforts are needed to engage with indigenous and local communities and their organizations, in order to identify common interests, resolve conflicts or concerns, and establish agreements for collaborative work. At the same time, it is much more difficult to undertake socially sound conservation in the context of constraining policy and institutions. Expanded alliances with peoples' organizations at higher levels, along with engagement with governments, offer important opportunities to address broader governance issues that affect both biodiversity and social well-being, and the possibilities for linking them in practice.

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Conservation, human rights and poverty reduction. Conservation Biology 20 1 : Brown, M. Wyckoff-Baird Designing integrated conservation and development projects. Cernea, M.

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Population displacement inside protected areas: A redefinition of concepts in conservation policies. Policy Matters The risks and reconstruction model for resettling displaced populations. World Development 25 10 : Amazon indigenous agenda: Returning to the Maloca. Colchester, M. Conservation policy and indigenous peoples. Environmental Science and Policy 7: Convention on Biodiversity Secretariat. Voluntary guidelines for the conduct of cultural, environmental and social impact assessments regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous peoples.

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The Company regards that the energy conservation is the duty and responsibility of all executives and employees at all levels and that they are required to deliver their cooperation to comply with the energy conservation measures, to monitor and report relevant issue to the Energy Management Committee. Executives and Energy Management Committee shall revise the energy policy, goal and plan on annual basis. The energy management report shall be prepared and submitted to the Company's executives and relevant information shall be annually disclosed to its stakeholders.

The Energy Management Committee shall perform duties and have responsibilities as follows. To propose to the top executives to consider stipulating the energy conservation goal and plan, energy management methods, training programs and activities to instill energy conservation awareness to all employees. To perform in compliance with the energy conservation goal and plan, to continuously arrange the training course or activities in order to promote the energy conservation to all employees for good understanding and practices in complying with the policy.

To supervise and provide the audit and analysis of the practices in compliance with the energy conservation goal and plan as well as controlling, checking, monitoring and evaluating the energy management. The Company shall also revise, analyze and correct any error of energy management on an annual basis at the appropriate time. To communicate with all employees to create better understanding about energy management goal, plan and methods, the results of energy conservation and management and the results of meeting, revision, analysis and correction of any errors relating to the energy management.


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To deliver recommendations about stipulation and revision of Energy Conservation Policy and energy management methods to the top executives for their consideration annually. To promote and encourage the subsidiaries to comply with the Energy Conservation Policy, relevant regulations and the best practice for energy conservation and management.

To perform other duties as designated.